Christopher M. Swan, PhD
2003 Ph.D., Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
1997 M.S., Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
1994 B.S., Biology-Ecology, West Chester University, West Chester, PA
2015 – present, Professor, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
2009 – 2015, Associate Professor, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
2003 – 2009, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
2004 – present, Faculty Fellow, Center for Urban Environmental Research & Education (UMBC)
External Responsibilities & Professional Affiliations
Subject Editor: Oikos, Aquatic Sciences
Reviewer: Ecology, Oecologia, Ecography, Ecosystems, Freshwater Biology, J Animal Ecology, Global Change Biology (and 20 others)
Professional Affiliations: Ecological Society of America, Society for Freshwater Science
Grants & Research Support
- National Science Foundation, “NRT: Interdisciplinary Consortium for Applied Research in Ecology and Evolution (ICARE): Broadening Participation Across the Environmental Sciences in Baltimore Harbor” T. Mendelson (P.I.), C. Burge (Co-P.I.), L. Blaney (Co-P.I.), C. Swan (Co-.P.I.), K. Omland (Co-P.I.) (2019-2024)
- National Science Foundation, “The role of dendritic network topology and environmental filtering in shaping the ecology of spatially structured communities” B. Brown (P.I.) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) K. Anderson (Co-P.I.) E. Sokol (Co-P.I.) (2017-2020)
- German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig – “sUrBioCity – Deciphering Drivers of Urban Biodiversity across Multiple Scales” C. Swan (P.I.) (2017-2018)
- National Science Foundation – LTER, “BES LTER IV: Dynamic heterogeneity: Investigating outcomes and drivers of ecological change in urban ecosystems” E. Rosi (P.I.) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) + 48 others (2016-2018)
- National Science Foundation – LTER Network Communications Office – “A synthesis to identify how metacommunity dynamics mediate community responses to disturbance across the ecosystems represented in the LTER network.” E. Sokol (P.I.) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) N. Wisnoski (Co-P.I.) (2016-2017)
- National Science Foundation – “Urban Water Innovation Network (U-WIN): Transitioning Toward Sustainable Water Systems” C. Welty (P.I.) A. Miller (Co-PI) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) (2015-2019)
- National Park Service – “Internships in resource management in national parks in urbanizing lanscapes” C. Swan (P.I.) (2013-2018)
- National Science Foundation – LTER, “Baltimore Ecosystem Study Phase III: Adaptive Processes in the Baltimore Socio-Ecological System from the Sanitary to the Sustainable City” S.T.A. Pickett (P.I.) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) + 48 others (2010-2015)
- National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, “Integrating Climate Change into the Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay and Watershed” C. Swan (P.I.) (2010-2015)
- National Science Foundation, “The role of dendritic network topology and environmental filtering in shaping the ecology of spatially structured communities” C. Swan (P.I.) M. Baker (Co-P.I.) B. Brown (Co-P.I.) (2010-2015)
- European Commission, Erasmus Mundus Masters Course programme, scholarship to participate as an instructor in the European Master in Applied Ecology (Erasmus Mundus Masters Course) (2009-2016)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture-Biotechnology Risk-Assessment Program, “Risk Assessment Methodology for Plant Incorporated Insecticidal Products on Non-Target Aquatic Organisms” W. Lamp (P.I.), G. Dively (Co-P.I.), C. Swan (Co-P.I.) (2009-2012)
- U.S. Geological Survey, “Microbial nitrogen sequestration in detrital-based streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed under stress from road-salt runoff” C. Swan (P.I.) (2008-2009)
- U.S. Geological Survey, “Assessing the role of road salt run-off on the critical ecological interactions that regulate carbon processing in small, headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed” C. Swan (P.I.) (2007-2008)
- National Science Foundation – IGERT, “Water in the Urban Environment” C. Welty (P.I.), C. Swan (Senior Personnel) (2006-2010)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture – Biotechnology Risk-Assessment Program, “Risk Assessment Methodology for Plant Incorporated Insecticidal Products on Non-Target Aquatic Organisms” W. Lamp (P.I.), G. Dively (Co-P.I.), C. Swan (Co-P.I.) (2005-2008)
- National Science Foundation – MRI, “Acquisition of an ICP-MS and an IC by UMBC for Use in Environmental and Human Health Research at UMBC and Howard University” B. Reid (P.I.) et al., C. Swan (Senior Personnel) (2005-2008)
- National Science Foundation – LTER, “Human Settlements as Ecosystems: Metropolitan Baltimore from 1797 – 2100: Phase II” S.T.A. Pickett (P.I.) C. Swan (Co-P.I.) + 48 others (2004-2009)
Publications – Google Scholar Profile, please click here.
- Swan, C.M., L. Boyero & C. Canhoto (editors). Leaf Litter Processing in Freshwater Ecosystems. Springer.
- Sparkman, A. L. & C. M. Swan. The role of riparian functional and phylogenetic diversity on carbon processing in rivers. Ecological Monographs.
- Sparkman, A. L. & C. M. Swan. Intraspecific variation in riparian tree species and its role in driving carbon processing in adjacent streams.
- Voelker, N. & C. M. Swan. What Are the Independent and Interactive Role s of Consumer Dispersal and Environmental Constraints on Ecosystem Function in Experimental Ponds? Journal of Applied Ecology.
- Swan, C.M., D. Borowy, N. Voelker, A. Johnson, A. Sparkman, M. Shcheglovitova, F. Valente-Neto, M. Baker. Shifts in Phylogenetic Structure with Land Use Change of a Functionally Important Consumer Guild. Journal of Applied Ecology.
- Avolio, M., C. M. Swan, D. Jenerette & D. Pataki. Forum: Urban species diversity: A need for a new theoretical lens?. Oikos.
- Andrade R, J. Franklin, K. L. Larson, C. M. Swan, S. B. Lerman, H, L. Bateman, P. S. Warren, A. York. Predicting the assembly of novel communities in urban ecosystems, Landscape Ecology, in review.
- Voelker, N. & C. M. Swan. The Interaction Between Environmental Constraints and Regional Species Pools on a Zooplankton Metacommunity. Science of the Total Environment, in review
- Voelker, N.M., P. L. Zarnetske, N. I. Wisnoski, J. D. Tonkin, C. Swan, S. Record, L. Marazzi, N. Lany, T. Lamy, A. Compagnoni, M. C. N. Castorani, R. Andrade, E. R. Sokol. Novel insights to be gained from applying metacommunity theory to long-term biodiversity data. Ecosphere.
- Patrick, C.J., K. Anderson, B.L. Brown, C. Hawkins, A. Metcalfe, P. Saffarinia, T. Siqueira, C.M. Swan, J.D. Tonkin, L. Yuan. The application of metacommunity theory to the management of streams and rivers. Bioscience, in review
- Ibsen, P., D. Borowy, C. Swan & G. D. Jenerette. Incorporating climate and urban homogenization hypothesis explains recreational park biodiversity, as well as composition of aesthetic services. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, in review
- Swan, C. M., D. Borowy & A. L. Johnson. Increased diversity of the regional species pool augments establishment of native species in experimental vacant lot restorations. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, in review.
- Roque, F., J. de Oliveira, C. Lepczyk, F. Lima, N. Koch, A. V. Mansur, J. Blanco, P. Marcotullio, M. F. Aronson, W. Gonçalves, A. Pires, J. Marcato Junior, G. Camargo, C. Swan, C. Branquinho, T. Gadda, J. Sabino, D. Haase. Urgent understudied matter: Urban ecosystem (dis)services in tropical regions. Cities, in review
- Sol, D., C. Trisos, C. Múrria, A. Jeliazkov, C. González-Lagos, C. M. Swan, J. A. Tobia & S. Pavoine. The global impact of urbanisation on local functional diversity. Ecology Letters.
- Pickett, S., Cadenasso, M., Baker, M., Band, L., Boone, C., Buckley, G., Groffman, P., Grove, M., Irwin, E., Kaushal, S., LaDeau, S., Miller, A., Nilon, C., Romolini, M., Rosi, E., Swan, C., Szlavecz, K. 2020. Theoretical Perspectives of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study: Conceptual Evolution in a Social-Ecological Research Project, BioScience.
- Pickett, S.T.A., M.L. Cadenasso, J. M. Grove, E. G. Irwin & C. M. Swan (editors). 2019. Science for the Sustainable City: Empirical Insights from the Baltimore School of Urban Ecology. Yale University Press.
- Todd, P.A., L. H. L. Loke, E. C. Heery, R. H. Thurstan, D. J. Kotze & C. Swan. Forum: The impacts and processes of marine urbanization. Oikos
- Tiegs, S.D.,…C.Swan….and 151 others. 2019. Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones. Science Advances. (51) eaav0486
- Jepsen, R., K. He, L. Blaney & C. Swan. 2019. Effects of antimicrobial exposure on detrital biofilm metabolism in urban and rural stream environments. Science of the Total Environment 666:1151-1160.
- Seena, S.,…C.Swan….and 30 others. 2019. Biodiversity of leaf litter fungi in streams along a latitudinal gradient. Science of the Total Environment 661:306-315
- Suski, J.G., C.M. Swan, C.J. Salice & C. F. Wall. 2018. Effects of pond management on biodiversity patterns and community structure of zooplankton in urban environments. 2018. Science of the Total Environment Volumes 619–620, 1 April 2018, Pages 1441-1450
- Brown, B. L., C. Wahl & C. M. Swan. 2018. Experimentally disentangling the influence of dispersal and habitat filtering on benthic invertebrate community structure. Freshwater Biology 63(1): 48-61.
- Boyero, L; Graca, M; Tonin, A; Perez, J; Pearson, R; Swafford, A; Landeira, A; Albariño, R; Alexandrou, M; Barmuta, L; Callisto, M; Chara, J; Chauvet, E; Colón-Gaud, C; Dudgeon, D; Encalada, A; Figueroa, R; Flecker, A; Fleituch, T; Gessner, M; Gonçalves Júnior, J; Iwata, T; Mathooko, J; McKie, B; Pringle, C; Ramirez, A; Swan, C; Yule, C. 2017. Riparian plant litter quality increases with latitude. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 10562. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10640-3.
- Swan, C.M. and B.L. Brown. 2017. Metacommunity theory meets restoration: Isolation may mediate how ecological communities respond to stream restoration. Ecological Applications, 27(7):2209–2219.
- Johnson, A.L., D. Borowy & C.M. Swan. 2017. Land use history and seed dispersal drive divergent plant community assembly patterns in urban vacant lots. Journal of Applied Ecology.
- Follstad Shah, J., J.S. Kominoski, M. Ardon, W. Dodds, M. Gessner, N. Griffiths, C. Hawkins, A. Lecerf, C. LeRoy, D. Manning, S. Johnson, A. Rosemond, R. Sinsabaugh, C. Swan, J.Webster, and L. Zeglin. 2017. Global synthesis of the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter breakdown in streams and rivers. Global Change Biology 23(8):3064-3075.
- Tornwall, B. M., C. M. Swan & B. L. Brown. 2017. Manipulation of local environment produces different diversity outcomes depending on location within a river network. Oecologia 184(3) 663–674.
- Swan, C. M., A. L. Johnson & D. Nowak. 2017. Differential organization of taxonomic and functional diversity in an urban woody plant metacommunity. Applied Vegetation Science 20(1):7-17.
- Pickett, S.T.A., M.L. Cadenasso, E.J. Rosi-Marshall, K.T. Belt, P.M. Groffman, J.M. Grove, E.G. Irwin, S.S. Kaushal, S.L. LaDeau, C.H. Nilon, C.M. Swan, & P.S. Warren. Dynamic heterogeneity: A framework to promote ecological integration and hypothesis generation in urban systems. Urban Ecosystems 20(1): 1-14.
- Valente-Neto, F., F. de Oliveira Roque, M. Élio Rodrigues, L. Juen & C. M. Swan. 2016. Towards a practical use of Neotropical odonates as bioindicators: testing congruence across taxonomic resolution and life stages. Ecological Indicators 61: 952–959.
- Jones, J. A. & C. M. Swan. 2016. Community composition and diversity of riparian forests regulate decomposition of leaf litter in stream ecosystems. Restoration Ecology 24(2):230–234.
- Roque, F. O., N. K. Zampiva, F. Valente-Neto, J. F. S. de Menezes, N. Hamada, M. Pepinelli, T. Siqueira & C. Swan. 2016. Deconstructing richness patterns by commonness and rarity reveals bioclimatic and spatial effects in black fly metacommunities. Freshwater Biology 61(6):923–932.
- Sokol, E. R., B. L. Brown, C. C. Carey, , B. Tornwall, C. M. Swan & J. E. Barrett. 2015. Linking management to metacommunity dynamics in urban ponds. Ecological Modelling 296(24):36-45.
- Johnson, A. L., E. Tauzer & C. M. Swan. Human legacies differentially organize functional and phylogenetic diversity of urban herbaceous plant communities at multiple spatial scales. Applied Vegetation Science 18(3):513-527.
- Domingos, C. I., V. Ferreira, C. Canhoto, C. M. Swan. 2015. Warming and the presence of a dominant shredder drive variation in decomposer community assembly. Aquatic Sciences 77(1):129-140.
- Burgess, J., K. Szlavecz & C. M. Swan. 2015. Ecotypic differentiation of mid-Atlantic Quercus species in response to ultramafic soils. Australian Journal of Botany 63:308-323.
- Beachamp, V. B., C. M. Swan, K. L. Szlávecz & J. Hu. 2015. Riparian community structure and soil properties of restored urban streams. Ecohydrology 8(5):880-895.
- Johnson, A. L. & C. M. Swan. 2014. Drivers of Vegetation Species Diversity and Composition in Urban Ecosystems. In R.A McCleery, M.N Peterson & C.E. Moorman (Eds.), Urban Wildlife Science: Theory and Practice. Springer.
- Swan, C. M. & B. L. Brown. 2014. Using rarity to infer how dendritic network structure shapes biodiversity in riverine communities. Ecography 37(10):993-1001.
- Van Meter, R. J., C. M. Swan, J. Leips, J. W. Snodgrass. 2014. Road salt deicer as an environmental constraint on urban pond communities. PLOS One 9(2):e90168.
- Kominoski, J.S., J.J. Follstad Shah, C. Canhoto, D.G. Fischer, D. Giling, E. González, N.A. Griffiths, A. Larrañaga, C.J. LeRoy, M.M. Mineau, Y.R. McElarney, S.M. Shirley, C.M. Swan & S.D. Tiegs. 2013. Functional implications of global changes in riparian plant communities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11(8):423-432.
- Van Meter, R.J., C.M. Swan & C.A. Trossen. 2012. Effects of road deicer (NaCl) and amphibian grazers on detritus processing in pond mesocosms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31(10):2306-2310.
- Pickett, S.T.A., G.S. Brush, A.J. Felson, B.P. McGrath, J.M. Grove, C.H. Nilon, K. Szlavecz, C.M. Swan, P.S. Warren. 2012. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study: Understanding and Working with Urban Biodiversity. Citygreen. Issue 4: 68-77.
- Swan, C. M. & J. S. Kominoski. 2012. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function of Decomposition. In: eLS 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester http://www.els.net/ [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0023601]
- Swan, C. M. & C. A. DePalma. 2012. Elevated chloride and consumer presence independently influence processing of stream detritus. Urban Ecosystems 15(3):625-635.
- Swan, C. M. 2011. Consumer presence and resource diversity independently induce stability of ecosystem function in a Piedmont stream. Ecosphere 2(12):136. doi:10.1890/ES11-00274.1
- Xia, L., K. Szlavecz, C. Swan & J. Burgess. 2011. Inter- and intra-specific interactions of Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) and Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1881) (Lumbricidae) and the implication for C cycling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43(7):1584-:1590.
- Swan, C.M. & B. L. Brown. 2011. Advancing theory of community assembly in spatially structured environments: local vs regional processes in river networks. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 30(1):232-234.
- Patrick, C.J., & C.M. Swan. 2011. Reconstructing the assembly of a stream-insect metacommunit. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 30(1):259-272.
- Brown, B.L., C.M. Swan, D. Auerbach, E.H. Campbell-Grant, N.P. Hitt, K.O. Maloney & C. Patrick. 2011. The metacommunity concept as a multi-species, multi-scale framework for studying the influence of river network structure on riverine communities and ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 30(1):310-327.
- Swan, C.M., S.T.A. Pickett, K. Szlavecz, P. Warren & K.T. Willey. 2011. Biodiversity and community composition in urban ecosystems: coupled human, spatial and metacommunity processes. Chapter 3.5 in Niemela, J. (ed). Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 392 pages.
- Van Meter, R.J., C.M. Swan & J.W. Snodgrass. 2011. Salinization alters ecosystem structure in urban stormwater detention ponds. Urban Ecosystems 14(4):723-736.
- Van Meter, R.J., C.M. Swan, J. Leips, J.W. Snodgrass. 2011. Road salt stress induces novel food web structure and interactions. Wetlands 31(5):843-851.
- Boyero, L., R.G. Pearson, D.D. Dudgeon, V. Ferreira, A.J. Boulton, M.A.S. Graça, E. Chauvet, C.M. Yule, M.O. Gessner, R.J. Albariño, A. Ramirez, J.E. Helson, M. Callisto, M. Arunachalam, J. Chará, R. Figueroa, J.M. Mathooko, J.F. Gonçalves Jr., M. Moretti, A.M. Chará, J.N. Davies, A. Encalada, S. Lamothe, L.M. Buria, J. Castela, A. Cornejo, A.O.Y. Li, C. M’Erimba, V.D. Villanueva, M.d.C. Zúñiga, C. Swan & L. Barmuta. 2011. Global patterns of stream detritivore species richness: implications for biodiversity loss in changing climates. Global Ecology & Biogeography 21(2):134–141.
- Lecerf A., G. Marie, J.S. Kominski, C. LeRoy, C. Bernardet & C.M. Swan. 2011. Incubation time, functional litter diversity, and ecosystem characteristics predict nonadditive litter mixing effects on decomposition: A synthesis from streams. Ecology 92(1):160-169.
- Gessner, M.O., C.M. Swan, C.K. Dang, R.D. Bardgett., B.G. McKie & S. Hättenschwiler. 2010. Diversity meets decompostion. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(6):372-380.
- Brown, B.L. & C.M. Swan. 2010. Dendritic network structure constrains metacommunity properties in riverine ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology 79:571-580.
- Jensen, P.D., G.P. Dively, C.M. Swan & W.O. Lamp. 2010. Exposure and non-target effects of transgenic Bt corn debris in streams. Environmental Entomology 39(2):707-714.
- Kominoski, J.S., T.J. Hoellein, C.J. Leroy, C.M. Pringle & C.M. Swan. 2010. Beyond species richness: Expanding biodiversity–ecosystem functioning theory in detritus-based streams. River Research and Applications 24:1-9.
- Rosemond, A.D., C.M. Swan, J.S. Kominoski, & S. Dye. 2010. Non-additive effects of litter mixing are canceled in a nutrient-enriched stream. Oikos 119: 326-336.
- Swan, C.M., P.D. Jensen, G.P. Dively & W.O. Lamp. 2009. Processing of transgenic crop residues in stream ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1304–1313.
- Burgess, J.L., S. Lev, C.M. Swan & K. Szlavecz. 2009. Geologic and edaphic controls on a serpentine forest community. Northeastern Naturalist 16:366-384.
- Swan, C.M., B.L. Brown & C.A. DePalma. 2009. Identifying the relative importance of detritivore vs. leaf species loss on litter decomposition in streams. International Review of Hydrobiology 94:452-471.
- Swan, C.M., M.A. Gluth & C.L. Horne. 2009.The role of leaf species evenness on non-additive breakdown of mixed-litter in a headwater stream. Ecology 90:1650-1658.
- McGuire, M., A. Gangopadhyay, A. Komlodi & C. Swan. 2008. A user-centered design for a spatial data warehouse for data exploration in environmental research. Ecological Informatics 2008:273-285.
- Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, L.E. Band, C. Shields, R.P. Morgan, M.A. Palmer, K.T. Belt, C.M. Swan, S.E.G. Findlay & G.T. Fisher. 2008. Interaction between urbanization and climate variability amplifies watershed nitrate export in Maryland. Environmental Science & Technology 42:5872-5878.
- Swan, C.M., B. Healey & D. C. Richardson. 2008. The role of native riparian tree species in decomposition of invasive Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) leaf litter in an urban stream. Ecoscience 15:27-35.
- Ball, B.B., M.D. Hunter, J.S. Kominoski, C.M. Swan & M.A. Bradford. 2008. Consequences of non-random species loss for decomposition dynamics: experimental evidence for additive and non-additive effects. Journal of Ecology 96:303-313.
- Swan, C.M. & M.A. Palmer. 2006. Preferential feeding by an aquatic detritivore mediates non-additive decomposition of speciose leaf litter. Oecologia 149:107-114.
- Swan, C.M. & M.A. Palmer. 2006. Composition of speciose leaf litter alters stream detritivore growth, feeding activity and leaf breakdown. Oecologia 147:469-478.
- Ellison, A.M., M.S. Bank, A.A. Barker-Plotkin, B.D. Clinton, E.A. Colburn, K. Elliott, C.R. Ford, D.R. Foster, S. Jefts, B.D. Kloeppel, J.D. Knoepp, G.M. Lovett, J. Malloway, B. Mathewson, R. McDonald, J. Mohan, D.A. Orwig, N.L. Rodenhouse, W.V. Sobczak, K.A. Stinson, P. Snow, J.K. Stone, C.M. Swan, J. Thompson, B. Von Holle and J.R. Webster. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:479-486.
- Swan, C.M. & M.A. Palmer. 2005. Leaf litter diversity leads to non-additivity in stream detritivore colonization dynamics. Oceanological & Hydrobiological Studies 34:19-38.
- Swan, C.M. & M.A. Palmer. 2004. Leaf diversity alters litter breakdown in a Piedmont stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:15-28.
- Brooks, S., M. Palmer, C. Swan, B. Cardinale & S. Ribblett. 2003. Assessing stream ecosystem rehabilitation: limitations of community structure data. Restoration Ecology 10(1):156-168.
- Cardinale, B.J., M.A. Palmer, C.M. Swan, S. Brooks & N.L. Poff. 2002. The influence of physical habitat heterogeneity on biofilm metabolism in a stream ecosystem. Ecology 83:412-422.
- Silver, P, M.A. Palmer, C.M. Swan & D. Wooster. The small-scale ecology of freshwater meiofauna. 2002. Chapter 8 in S.D. Rundle, A.L. Robertson & J.M. Schmid-Araya, eds. Freshwater Meiofauna: Biology and Ecology. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, 369 pages.
- Hakenkamp, C.C., S.G. Ribblett, M.A. Palmer, C.M. Swan, J.W. Reid & M.R. Goodison. 2001. The impact of an introduced species of bivalve (Corbicula fluminea) on the benthos of a sandy stream. Freshwater Biology 46:491-502.
- Swan, C.M. & M.A. Palmer. 2000. What drives small-scale spatial patterns in lotic meiofauna communities? Freshwater Biology 44:109-122.
- Palmer, M.A., C.M. Swan, K. Nelson, P. Silver & R. Alvestad. 2000. Streambed landscapes: empirical evidence that stream invertebrates respond to the type and spatial arrangement of patches. Landscape Ecology 15:563-576.